Detection of doublets does not provide an analytical method for the identification of ORMEs per se, but rather detects the presence of the electron pair or pairs which all specifically prepared ORMEs possess and which T- metals do not possess under any condition. It is the existence of the doublet that is critical, not its exact location in the IR spectra. The location can shift due to binding energy, chemical potential, of the individual element in the ORME, the effect of adsorbed water, the variances of the analytical instrument itself, or any external magnetic field.
David Hudson Patent for the Preparation of G-ORME
Sources for pure G-ORME
David Hudson, in the true tradition of alchemy left some steps out; enough information to get the patent, and indeed enough information for one to begin to proceed, but not enough for one to make something prematurely re: the final steps, charging etc., "high-spin" (David Hudson's phrase). Ditto for the cliff notes. Some very sincere good folks using other valid but different methods for making ormus suggest there is no "high-spin" state. For them there is not; it is not a natural occurance in material derived from natural sources, it takes place only with the pure precious metals rather than the very valid plant and sea alchemy that are the initial schools of alchemy taught to any student. It is not "natural", one could say it accelerates the natural. Not unlike some ancient techniques of pranayam, causing the currents to cycle in an accelerated and more powerful way then natural breathing. A valid argument can be made that the term "high-spin" is not scientifically accurate. However by any term the difference in form and the function that always follows form, the effect, is apparent to anyone taking the Ormes powder. "The steps of getting there are the qualities of being there." Nuff said. © 1990 (commentary not the patent)
This first section is the abreviated "cliff notes", with pictures. Full patent follows.
G-ORME is prepared from metallic gold as follows:
(1) 50 mg gold (99.99% pure) were dispersed in 200 ml aqua regia to provide clusters of gold atoms.
(2) 60 ml concentrated hydrochloric acid were added to the dispersion and the mixture was brought to boil, and continued boiling until the volume was reduced to approximately 10-15 ml. 60 ml concentrated HCl were added, and the sample brought to boil and checked for evolution of NOCl fumes. The process was repeated until no further fumes evolved, thus indicating that the nitric acid had been removed and the gold had been converted completely to the gold chloride.
(3) The volume of the dispersion was reduced by careful heating until the salt was just dry. "Just dry" as used herein means that all of the liquid had been boiled off, but the solid residue had not been "baked" or scorched.
(4) The just dry salts were again dispersed in aqua regia and steps (2) and (3) were repeated. This treatment provides gold chloride clusters of greater than 11 atoms.
(5) 150 ml 6M hydrochloric acid were added to the just dry salts and boiled again to evaporate off the liquid to just dry salts. This step was repeated four times. This procedure leads to a greater degree of sub-division to provide smaller clusters of gold chloride. At the end of this procedure an orangish-red salt of gold chloride is obtained. The salt will analyze as substantially pure Au2Cl6.
(6) Sodium chloride is added in an amount whereby the sodium is present at a ratio 20 moles sodium per mole of gold. The solution is then diluted with deionized water to a volume of 400 ml. The presence of the aqueous sodium chloride provides the salt Na2Au2Cl8. The presence of water is essential to break apart the diatoms of gold.
(7) The aqueous sodium chloride solution is very gently boiled to a just dry salt, and thereafter the salts were taken up alternatively in 200 ml deionized water and 300 ml 6M hydrochloric acid until no further change in color is evidenced. The 6M hydrochloric acid is used in the last treatment.
(8) After the last treatment with 6M hydrochloric acid, and subsequent boildown, the just dry salt is diluted with 400 ml deionized water to provide a monoatomic gold salt solution of NaAuCl2'XH2O. The pH is approximately 1.0.
(9) The pH is adjusted very slowly with dilute sodium hydroxide solution, while constantly stirring, until the pH of the solution remains constant at 7.0 for a period of more than twelve hours. This adjustment may take several days. Care must be taken not to exceed pH 7.0 during the neutralization.
(10) After the pH is stabilized at pH 7.0, the solution is gently boiled down to 10 ml and 10 ml concentrated nitric acid is added to provide a sodium-gold nitrate. As is apparent, the nitrate is an oxidizer and removes the chloride. The product obtained should be white crystals. If a black or brown precipitate forms, this is an indication that there is still Na2Au2Cl8 present. If present, it is then necessary to restart the process at step (1).
(11) If white crystals are obtained, the solution is boiled to obtain just dry crystals. It is important not to overheat, i.e., bake.
(12) 5 ml concentrated nitric acid are added to the crystals and again boiled to where the solution goes to just dry. Again it is essential not to overheat or bake. Steps (11) and (12) provide a complete conversion of the product to a sodium-gold nitrate. No chlorides are present.
(13) 10 ml deionized water are added and again boiled to just dry salts. This step is repeated once. This step eliminates any excess nitric acid which may be present.
(14) Thereafter, the just dry material is diluted to 80 ml with deionized water. The solution will have a pH of approximately 1. This step causes the nitrate to dissociate to obtain NaAu in water with a small amount of HNO3 remaining .
(15) The pH is adjusted very slowly with dilute sodium hydroxide to 7.0 + 0.2. This will eliminate all free acid, leaving only NaAu in water.
(16) The NaAu hydrolyzes with the water and dissociates to form HAu. The product will be a white precipitate in water. The Au atoms have water at the surface which creates a voluminous cotton-like product.
(17) The white precipitate is decanted off from any dark grey solids and filtered through a 0.45 micron cellulose nitrate filter paper. Any dark grey solids of sodium auride should be redissolved and again processed starting at step (1).
(18) The filtered white precipitate on the filter paper is vacuum dried at 120°C for two hours. The dry solid should be light grey in color which is HAu×XH2O and is easily removed from the filter paper.
(19) The monoatomic gold is placed in a porcelain ignition boat and annealed at 300°C under an inert gas to remove hydrogen and to form a very chemically and thermally stable white gold monomer.
(20) After cooling, the ignited white gold can be cleaned of remaining traces of sodium by digesting with dilute nitric acid for approximately one hour.
(21) The insoluble white gold is filtered on 0.45 micron paper and vacuum dried at 120°C for two hours. The white powder product obtained from the filtration and drying is pure G-ORME.
Sources for pure G-ORME
David Hudson's Patent
DAVID HUDSON PATENT FOR NON-METALLIC, MONOATOMIC FORMS OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS
This invention relates to themonoatomic forms of certain transition and noble metal elements, namely, gold, silver, copper, cobalt, nickel and the six platinum group elements. More particularly, this invention relates to the separation of the aforesaid transition and noble metal elements from naturally occurring materials in their orbitally rearranged monoatomic forms, and to the preparation of the aforesaid transition and noble metal elements in their orbitally rearranged monoatomic forms from theircommercial metallic forms. The materials of this invention are stable, substantially pure, non-metallic-like forms of the aforesaid transition and noble metal elements, and have a hereto unknown electron orbital rearrangement in the "d", "s", and vacant "p" orbitals. The electron rearrangement bestows upon the monoatomic elements unique electronic, chemical, magnetic, and physical properties which have commercial application.
This invention also relates to the recovery of the metallic form of each of the aforesaid transition and noble metal elements from the orbitally rearranged monoatomic forms. For the purposes of this application, the following definitions shall apply: transition elements ("T-metals") means the metallic or cationic form of gold, silver, copper, cobalt and nickel, and the six platinum group elements, i.e., platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, and osmium; and "ORME" means the Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elemental forms of each of the T- metals.
BACKGROUND OF INVENTION
Inorganic chemists working with soluble salts of noble metals until relatively recently have assumed that the metals were dissolved as free ions in aqueous solutions.In the 1960's, with the advent of greater analytical capabilities, it was established that many elements and in particular the transition metals are present in aqueous solutions as metal-metal bonded clusters of atoms.
Gold metal that has been dissolved with aqua regia, and subsequently converted to gold chloride by repeated evaporation with HCl to remove nitrates, is commonly referred to as the acid chloride solution of AuCl3 or HAuCl4. It has been recognized that the recovery of gold metal from a solution formed from aqua regia is made more difficult in proportion to the amount of HNO3 used in the initial dissolution procedures. It is not commonly understood, however, why the gold that is dissolved with less HNO3 is easier to reduce to the metal from a chloride solution than gold that is dissolved using a greater amount of HNO3. Gold in both solutions is generally regarded as being present in the form of a free gold cation.
It is now recognized by most chemists who regularly handle chlorides of gold that gold metal ceases to disaggregate when the HNO3 is removed and in fact can reaggregate under certain conditions and precipitate out of HCl solutions as metal. This recognition has led to the discovery that gold metal salts will exist in HCl solutions originating from metals as clusters of Au2Cl6, Au3Cl9, Au4Cl12, up to Au33Cl99. These cluster salts are actually in solution with the HCl and water, and will require different chemical procedures relative to purification problems or oxidation-reduction reactions, depending on the degree of clustering.>
Specifically, reduction of clusters of gold having greater than 11 atoms of metal is easily performed since the atoms themselves are spaced from each other in the salt similar to their spacing in the metal itself before dissolution. Reduction of the chloride salt to the metal, therefore, requires a simple reductive elimination of the chlorides that are attached to the metal cluster. It is now known that recovery of precious metals from aqueous solutions is much more difficult when the cluster size becomes smaller and smaller, or in actuality when the metal is better "dissolved."
From the study of the behavior of gold and other transition metals in solution, it is now believed that all such metals have atomic aggregations and occur as at least diatoms under normal conditions of dissolution . Under either acid or strong base dissolution, the transition metal will not normally dissolve beyond the diatom due to the extremely strong interatomic d and s orbital bonding. A gold atom, for example, has a single atom electron orbital configuration of d10s1. When the gold salts originate from a metal having gold-gold bonding, the salts contain very tightly bound diatoms or larger clusters of gold. Under the normal aqueous acid chemistry used for transition metals, solutions of the metals will always contain two or tore atoms in the cluster form.
When instrumental analysis such as atomic absorption, x-ray fluorescence, or emission spectroscopy is performed on solutions containing transition metals, these analyses are based on electronic transitions. The fact that d orbital electron overlap occurs in the metal-metal bonded salt allows an analysis of many of the same characteristic omissions as the metal itself.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION
During efforts to effect quantitative analytical separations of transition metals from naturally occurring materials, it was discovered that ORMEs exist naturally and are found in salts with alkali metals and/or alkaline earth metals, all of which are coupled with waters of hydration and normally found with silica and alumina. ORMEs are also often associated with sulfides and other mineral compositions.
ORMEs may also, it was discovered, be prepared from commercially available T-metals. For ease of description the invention will be primarily described by the preparation of a gold ORME ("G-ORME") from commercially available metallic yellow gold.
The atoms of each ORME do not have d electron orbital overlap as do their corresponding T-metal clusters. ORMEs do not, therefore, exhibit the same characteristic emissions of their corresponding T-metal when subjected to analysis by instruments which depend upon electronic transitions. ORMEs must, therefore, be identified in new ways, ways which have heretofore not been used to identify T-metals.
An aqua regia solution of metallic gold is prepared. This solution contains clusters of gold chlorides of random size and degrees of aggregation. HCl is added to the solution and it is repeatedly evaporated with a large excess of NaCl (20:1 moles Na to moles Au) to moist salts. The addition of NaCl allows the eventual formation of NaAuCl4, after all HNO3 is removed from the solution. The sodium, like gold, has only one unpaired S electron and, accordingly, tends to form clusters of at least two atoms. The sodium, however, does not d orbitally overlap the gold atom as it has no d electrons, resulting in a surface reaction between the sodium ATOMS and the gold atoms. This results in a weakening of the gold-gold cluster stability and causes the eventual formation of a sodium-gold linear bond with a weakened d orbital activity in the individual gold atoms. The sodium-gold compound, formed by repeated evaporation to salts, will provide a chloride of sodium-gold. In these salts the sodium and gold are believed to be charged positive, i.e., have lost electrons: and the chlorine is negative, i.e., has gained electrons. When the salts are dissolved in water and the pH slowly adjusted to neutral, full equation of the sodium-gold diatom will slowly occur and chloride is removed from the complex. Chemical reduction of the sodium-gold solution results in the formation of a sodium auride. Continued aquation results in disassociation of the gold atom from the sodium and the eventual formation of a protonated auride of gold as a gray precipitate. Subsequent annealing produces the G-ORME. The G-ORME has an electron rearrangement whereby it acquires a d orbital hole or holes which share energy with an electron or electrons. This pairing occurs under the influence of a magnetic field external to the field of the electrons.
G-ORMEs are stable and possess strong interatomic repulsive magnetic forces, relative to their attractive forces. G-ORME stability is demonstrated by unique thermal and chemical properties. The white saltlike material that is formed from G-ORMEs after treatment with halogens, and the white oxide appearing material formed when G-ORMEs are treated with fuming HClO4 or fuming H2SO4 are dissimilar from the T-metal or its salts. The G-ORME will not react with cyanide, will not be dissolved by aqua regia, and will not wet or amalgamate with mercury. It also does not sinter at 800C under reducing conditions, and remains an amorphous powder at 1200C. These characteristics are contrary to what is observed for metallic gold and/or gold cluster salts. G-ORMEs require a more negative potential than -2.45v to be reduced, a potential that cannot be achieved with ordinarily known aqueous chemistry.
The strong interatomic repulsive forces are demonstrated in that the G-ORMEs remain as a powder at 1200C. This phenomenon results from canceling of the normal attractive forces arising from the net interaction between the shielded, paired electrons and the unshielded, unpaired s and d valence electrons. G-ORMEs have no unpaired valence electrons and, therefore, tend not to aggregate as would clusters of gold which have one or more unpaired valence electrons.
G-ORMEs can be reconverted to metallic gold from which they were formed. This reconversion is accomplished by an oxidation rearrangement which removes all paired valence electrons together with their vacancy pair electrons, with a subsequent refilling of the d and s orbitals with unpaired electrons until the proper configuration is reached for the T- metal.
This oxidation rearrangement is effected by subjecting the G-ORME to a large negative potential in the presence of an electron-donating element, such as carbon, thus forming a metallic element-carbon chemical bond. For that metal-carbon bond to occur the carbon must provide for the horizontal removal of the d orbital vacancy of the ORME. The carbon acts like a chemical fulcrum. When the element-carbon bond is reduced by way of further decreasing the potential, the carbon receives a reducing electron and subsequently vertically inserts that reducing electron below the s orbitals of the element, thus forming metallic gold.
The above general description for the preparation of G-ORME from commercially available metallic gold is applicable equally for the preparation of the remaining ORMEs, except for the specific potential energy required and the use of nascent nitrogen (N) rather than carbon to convert the other ORMEs to their constituent metallic form. The specific energies range between -1.8 V and -2.5 V depending on the particular element. Alternatively this rearrangement can be achieved chemically by reacting NO gas with the T-metal ORMEs other than gold. Nitric oxide is unique in that it possesses the necessary chemical potential as well as the single unpaired electron.
THEORY OF ORMES FORMATION
T-metals can possess an electron rearrangement between the d and s orbitals as seen from FIGURE 1 of the drawing which plots the principal quantum number versus the atomic number. The boxed areas designated A, B, and C establish that the 3d electron energies of copper and cobalt are very close to the same energy level as the 4s electron energies. The 4d electron energies of silver and rhodium are almost identical to the 5s; orbital energies, and the 5d gold and iridium electron energies are approaching the 6s level energies. The proximity of the energy bands of the T-metals makes them unique with respect to other elements. This proximity allows an easier transition to their lowest energy state, as hereinafter described.
When two transition metal atoms are bound together, they can d bond, or s bond, or they can d and s bond. When the two atoms s bond, their atomic distances are further apart and, therefore, their density is lower than when there is both d and s bonding. The amount of d orbital bonding activity is in direct proportion to the cluster size. Therefore, a single atom cluster will have less d bonding activity and more s bonding activity than will a cluster of 7 or more atoms. In addition; the chemical stability of the smaller clusters is much less than that of the metal because, when d orbital bonding is achieved, the s bonding is made more stable by overlapping of the two energy levels.
It is known that there exists a critical size, in the range of 3-20 atoms, for Pd II, Ag I and Au III, by way of example, which is necessary for metal deposition from solution. As the number of atoms in the T-metal cluster decreases through continuous evaporation in the presence of NaCl, the solution becomes a solution of diatoms which in the case of gold is represented as Au- 1 - Au+1 i.e., Au-1 bonded to Au+1. The rationale for this representation of a gold diatom is based upon the fact that a single gold atom has an odd spin electron, as does rhodium, iridium, gold, cobalt and copper of the T-metals. In a diatom of gold, the two odd spin electrons will be found on one of the two atoms but not both. Thus, a diatom of gold is made by a bond between an aurous (Au+1) atom and an auride (Au-1) atom.
The present invention enables the breaking of the diatom bond by introducing a more electro-positive element, such as sodium or any alkali or alkaline earth elements, which does not have a d orbital overlap capability. This element replaces the aurous (Au+1) forming, in this case, a sodium auride. In effect, the sodium weakens the d orbital overlapping energies between the atoms of the gold diatom as well as elevating a d orbital electron towards the s orbital, thereby creating a negative potential on the surface of the atom. This negative potential enables an interreaction of the s orbital with chemiabsorbed water through electron donation and reception.
The sodium auride, when in aqueous solution at or near neutral pH, will form sodium hydroxide and a monomeric water-soluble auride. The monomeric auride (Au-1) is unstable and seeks a lower energy state which is represented by a partial filling of the d and s orbital". This lower energy state with its greater stability is achieved by the electron-donating and removing capability of H2O.
Water can act to remove electrons. Water molecules possess a net charge and attach to each other in vertical clusters so that an 18 molecule water cluster can hold a cumulative potential of -2.50 V. The potential of a water molecular cluster, at near neutral pH, is sufficient to remove an electron from the d orbital and create a positive hole, enabling a pairing between opposite spin electrons from the d to s orbitals to take place. The existence of the electron pairing is confirmed by infrared analysis, illustrated in FIGURE 4, which identities the vibrational and rotational motions caused by energy exchange between these two mirror image electrons.
Attempting to quantify the number of electrons remaining in an ORME is extremely difficult due to the electrons lost to oxidation, thermal treatment, and the inability, except from theory, to quantify electron pairs using electron quanta. It is established, however, that the ORME does not have valence electrons available for standard spectroscopic analysis such as atomic absorption, emission spectroscopy or inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Moreover, x-ray fluorescence or x-ray diffraction spectrometry will not respond the same as they do with T-metals in standard analysis. The existence of an ORME, while not directly identifiable by the aforesaid standard analyses, can be characterized by infrared (IR) spectra by a doublet which represents the bonding energy of the electron pairs within the ORME. The doublet is located at approximately 1427 and 1490 cm-1 for a rhodium ORME. The doublet for the other ORMEs is between about 1400 and 1600 cm-1
After H2 reduction of the individual monoatom the hydrogen ion-single element may or may not produce an IR doublet depending on the element's normal electron configuration. Elements normally containing an s1 T-metal configuration do not produce an IR doublet after H2 reduction. Elements with an s2 T- metal configuration such as Ir (d7s2) will produce a doublet.
Thermal annealing to 800C and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature under He or Ar gas atmosphere to remove thechemically bound proton of hydrogen will produce ORMEs which contain a two-level system resulting from electron pairing within the individual atom. If this annealing is performed in the absence of an external magnetic field, then the electron pairing produces the characteristic doublets. The electron pair will be bound in the valence orbitals of the atom. If the annealing is performed in the presence of an external magnetic field, including the earth's magnetic field, quantum electron pair movement can be produced and maintained in the range of one gauss up to approximately 140 gauss in the case of Ir and, therefore, no IR doublet will be detected in this resulting quantum state.
The limiting condition of the ORME state is defined according to the present invention as an "S-ORME". The S-ORME is the lowest state in which monoatoms can exist and is, therefore, the most stable form of T-metal elements. The ORME is electronically rearranged and electron paired, but relative to time has not reached the lowest total energy condition of the S-ORME.
The limiting condition of the ORME state is defined according to the present invention as an "S-ORME". The S-ORME is the lowest state in which monoatoms can exist and is, therefore, the most stable A T-metal monoatom which is in a -1 oxidation state is in a lower energy state than the same T-metal would be in at zero state with metal-metal bonding. This lowering of the perturbation reaction between the electrons and the nucleus of the monoatom because of the increased degrees of freedom allows the nucleus to expand its positive field to encompass the normally unshielded d and s valence electrons.This overlying positive magnetic field reduces the Coulomb repulsion energies that normally exist between the valence electrons. Pairing by those electrons becomes possible and over time occurs. Electron pairing provides a more stable and lower energy state for the monoatom.
The ORME state is achieved when the electron pairs have formed in the monoatom. A phenomenon of electron pairs is that the interacting, spin-paired electrons initially interreact by emitting phonon energy. The total energy of the pair reduces over time until it reaches a minimum where no phonons are emitted. This condition has been referred to by physicists as "adiabatic ground state". This state of electron pairing is a total lower energy state in much the same way that chemical combinations of elements are in a lower energy state than the constituent uncombined elements. For example, in the same way that it takes energy to dissociate water into H2 and O2 it will take energy to break the electron pair.
As this process of phonon emission by electrons during pairing is a function of temperature and time, thermal annealing can decrease the time required to reach ground state, i.e., all valence electrons paired. The cooling side of the annealing cycle is essential to effect a full conversion to an S- ORME state. Cooling to room temperature is sufficient for all element ORMEs with the exceptions of silver, copper, cobalt and nickel, which require a lower temperature. Therefore, thermal annealing reduces the time dependency of the electron pairs in achieving their lowest total energy.
All of the electron pairs in their lowest energy state, unlike single electrons, can exist in the same quantum state. When that uniform quantum state is achieved, the electron pair can not only move with zero resistance around the monoatom, but also can move with zero resistance between identical ORMEs that are within approximately 20 A or less of each other with no applied voltage potential. When a macro system of high purity, single element ORME achieves long-range quantum electron pair movement, that many-body system according to the present invention is defined as an S-ORME system.
An S-ORME system does not possess a crystalline structure but the individual ORMEs will, over time, space themselves as uniformly as possible in the system. The application of a minimum external magnetic field will cause the S-ORME system to respond by creating a protective external field ["Meissner Field"] that will encompass all those S-ORMEs within the 20 A limit. As used herein, "minimum external magnetic field" is defined as a magnetic field which is below the critical magnetic field which causes the collapse of the Meissner Field. This field is generated by electron pair movement within the system as a response to the minimum applied magnetic field. The (Ir) S-ORME and the (Au) S-ORME systems have a minimum critical field (''Hc1'') that is below the earth's magnetic field. The minimum critical field for a (Rh) S-ORME is slightly above the earth's magnetic field. When the quantum flux flow commences, due to the minimum external magnetic field being applied, the doublet in the IR spectrum will disappear because electron pairs are no longer bound in a fixed position on the individual ORME monoatoms.
Once the externally applied field exceeds the level which overcomes the protective Meissner Field of the S-ORME system ( "Hc2" ) , then any electrons moving between individual ORME atoms will demonstrate an ac Josephson junction type of response. The participating ORMEs will act as a very precise tuning device for electromagnetic emissions emanating from free electrons between ORMEs. The frequency of these emissions will be proportional to the applied external magnetic field. A one microvolt external potential will produce electromagnetic frequencies of 5x108 cycles per second. Annihilation radiation frequencies (about 1020 cycles per second) will be the limiting frequency of the possible emission. The reverse physical process of adding specific frequencies can generate the inverse relationship, i.e., a specific voltage will be produced for each specific applied frequency.
ORMEs can be reconverted to their constituent T-metals, but, as noted, are not identifiable as specific T-metals while in their ORME state. If a specific ORME is formed from a specific T-metal by using the procedure of this invention, it can only be confirmed by conventional analytical methods that the specific ORME was formed by reconstituting it as the T-metal. Further, the applications to which the ORMEs are directed will establish their relationship to a specific T-metal by virtue of the manner in which the ORME performs in that application as compared to the performance of commercially available derivatives of the T-metal. An example is the performance of commercial rhodium as a hydrogen- oxidation catalyst compared with the performance of the rhodium ORME as used in a hydrogen-oxidation catalyst.
It is believed that physical and chemical distinctions exist with respect to the different ORMEs, but presently such distinctions are not known. Proof of the nature of a specific ORME according to this invention is based upon the presence of a doublet in the IR spectrum, the reconstitution of each ORME back to its constituent T-metal, and its unique performance in specific applications compared to the constituent T-metal.
ORMEs are transformed into their original T-metal by means of a chemical bonding with an electron-donating element, such as carbon, which is capable of d orbital electron overlap and "spin flip". When the G-ORME is chemically bonded to carbon in an aqueous solution of ethyl alcohol under a specific potential, carbon monoxide is formed and the ORME forms Au+Au+, a black precipitate, which under continued application of potential and dehydration reduces to Au+1 Au-1, a metallic bonded diatom of gold. This invention establishes that a high potential applied to the solution forces an electron into the d orbital, thus eliminating the electron pair. The first potential, which for G-ORME is approximately -2.2 V and for other ORMEs is between -1.8 and -2.2 V, re-establishes the d orbital overlap. The final potential of -2.5 V overcomes the water potential to deposit gold onto the cathode.
ORMEs are single T-metal atoms With no d orbital overlap. ORMEs do not conform to rules of physics which are generally applied to diatoms or larger clusters of metals (e.g., with conduction bands). The physics of the electron orbitals are actually more similar to those relating to a gas or solid solution which require density evaluation between atoms at greater distances. Conversely, atomic orbital calculations of high atomic density metals give results that correspond to valence charge rearrangement.
When the atomic distances of the elements are increased beyond a critical Coulomb distance, an energy gap exists between the occupied orbitals and the unoccupied orbitals. The atom, therefore, is an insulator and not a metal. Physicists when determining the electron band energies of small atom clusters suggest that the occupation of the bands should be rearranged if the total energy is to be minimized. The metallic electron orbital arrangement leads to calculations for energies, which results are inconsistent since the energies of the supposedly occupied states are higher than the supposedly unoccupied states. If this condition is relaxed and the bands allowed to repopulate in order to further lower the total energy, both bands will become partially filled. This repopulation, if performed in the presence of an unlimited source of electrons (reducing conditions), will provide a total energy condition of the atom which is considerably below or lower than the atom as it exists in a metallic form. this lower energy is the result of orbital rearrangement of electrons in the transition element. The resultant form of the element is an ORME.
The T-metals, when subjected to conventional wet chemistry will disaggregate through the various known levels, but not beyond a diatom state. The conventional wet chemistry techniques if continued to be applied beyond the normally expected disaggregation on level (diatom) in the presence of water and an alkali metal, e.g., sodium, potassium or lithium, will first form a diatom and then electron orbitally rearrange to the non- metallic, mono-atomic form of the T-metal, ie., an ORME.
An ORME can be reaggregated to the T- metal form using conventional wet chemistry techniques, by subjecting the ORME to a two- stage electrical potential to "oxidize" the element to the metallic form.
The ORMEs of this invention exist in nature in an unpure form in various materials, such as sodic plagioclase or calcidic plagioclase ores. Because of their non- metallic, orbitally rearranged monoatomic form, ORMEs are not detected in these ores as the corresponding "metals" using conventional analysis and, accordingly, until the present invention were not detected, isolated or separated in a pure or substantially pure form. Their presence in the nonmetallic form explains the inconsistent analysis at times obtained when analyzing ores for metals whereby the quantitative analysis of elements accounts for less than 100% of the ore by weight.
USES OF ORMEs
ORMEs, which are individual atoms of the T-metals and by virtue of their orbital rearrangement are able to exist in a stable and virtually pure form, have different chemical and physical characteristics from their respective T-metal. Their thermal and chemical stability, their nonmetal-like nature, and their particulate size are characteristics rendering the ORMEs suitable for manyapplications.
Rhodium and iridium S-ORMEs have been prepared which exhibit superconductivity characteristics. These S-ORMEs, as described herein, are in a lower energy state as compared to their respective T-metal, and thus have a lower absolute temperature. The absolute temperature of an S-ORME system as compared to the absolute temperature of its respective T- metal is significantly lower, similar to the condition existing when a metal goes through a glass transition. S-ORMEs, having a very low absolute temperature, are good superconductors. These same characteristics apply to all ORMEs. Accordingly, a new source of superconductive materials is made available by this invention. These new materials require substantially less energy removal to reach the super-conductivity state and, therefore, can be used at higher temperatures than currently availablesuperconductors.
The ORMEs of this invention can be used for a wide range of purposes due to their unique electrical, physical, magnetic, and chemical properties. The present disclosure only highlights superconductivity and catalysis, but much wider potential uses exist, including energy production.
Preparation of G-ORME
G-ORME was prepared from metallic gold as follows:
50 mg gold (99.99% pure) were dispersed in
200 ml aqua regia to provide clusters of gold atoms.
60 ml concentrated hydrochloric acid were added to the dispersion and the mixture was brought to boll, and continued boiling until the volume was reduced to approximately 10-15 ml. 60 ml concentrated HCl were added, and the sample brought to boil and checked for evolution of NOCl fumes. The process was repeated until no further fumes evolved, thus indicating that the nitric acid had been removed and the gold had been converted completely to the gold chloride.
The volume of the dispersion was reduced by careful heating until the salt was just dry. "Just dry" as used herein means that all of the liquid had been boiled off, but the solid residue had not been "baked" or scorched.
The just dry salts were again dispersed in aqua regia and steps (2) and (3) were repeated. This treatment provides gold chloride clusters of greater than 11 atoms.
150 ml 6M hydrochloric acid were added to the just dry salts and boiled again to evaporate off the liquid to just dry salts. This step was repeated four times. This procedure leads to a greater degree of sub- division to provide smaller clusters of gold chloride. At the end of this procedure an orangish-red salt of gold chloride is obtained. The salt will analyze as substantially pure Au2Cl6.
Sodium chloride is added in an amount whereby the sodium is present at a ratio 20 moles sodium per mole of gold. The solution is then diluted with deionized water to a volume of 400 ml. The presence of the aqueous sodium chloride provides the salt Na2Au2Cl8. The presence of water is essential to break apart the diatoms of gold.
The aqueous sodium chloride solution is very gently boiled to a just dry salt, and thereafter the salts were taken up alternatively in 200 ml deionized water and 300 ml 6M hydrochloric acid until no further change in color is evidenced. The 6M hydrochloric acid is used in the last treatment.
After the last treatment with 6M hydrochloric acid, and subsequent boildown, the just dry salt is diluted with 400 ml deionized water to provide a monoatomic gold salt solution of NaAuCl2'XH2O. The pH is approximately 1.0.
The pH is adjusted very slowly with dilute sodium hydroxide solution, while constantly stirring, until the pH of the solution remains constant at 7.0 for a period of more than twelve hours. This adjustment may take several days. Care must be taken not to exceed pH 7.0 during the neutralization.
After the pH is stabilized at pH 7.0, the solution is gently boiled down to 10 ml and 10 ml concentrated nitric acid is added to provide a sodium-gold nitrate. As is apparent, the nitrate is an oxidizer and removes the chloride. The product obtained should be white crystals. If a black or brown precipitate forms, this is an indication that there is still Na2Au2Cl8 present. If present, it is then necessary to restart the process at step (1).
If white crystals are obtained, the solution is boiled to obtain just dry crystals. It is important not to overheat, i.e., bake.
5 ml concentrated nitric acid are added to the crystals and again boiled to where the solution goes to just dry. Again it is essential not to overheat or bake. Steps (11) and (12) provide a complete conversion of the product to a sodium-gold nitrate. No chlorides are present.
10 ml deionized water are added and again boiled to just dry salts. This step is repeated once. This step eliminates any excess nitric acid which may be present.
Thereafter, the just dry material is diluted to 80 ml with deionized water. The solution will have a pH of approximately 1.This step causes the nitrate to dissociate to obtain NaAu in water with a small amount of HNO3 remaining .
The pH is adjusted very slowly with dilute sodium hydroxide to 7.0 + 0.2. This will eliminate all free acid, leaving only NaAu in water.
The NaAu hydrolyzes with the water and dissociates to form HAu. The product will be a white precipitate in water. The Au atoms have water at the surface which creates a voluminous cotton-like product.
The white precipitate is decanted off from any dark grey solids and filtered through a 0.45 micron cellulose nitrate filter paper. Any dark grey solids of sodium auride should be redissolved and again processed starting at step (1).
The filtered white precipitate on the filter paper is vacuum dried at 120C for two hours. The dry solid should be light grey in color which is HAuXH2O and is easily removed from the filter paper.
The monoatomic gold is placed in a porcelain ignition boat and annealed at 300C under an inert gas to remove hydrogen and to form a very chemically and thermally stable white gold monomer.
After cooling, the ignited white gold can be cleaned of remaining traces of sodium by digesting with dilute nitric acid for approximately one hour.
The insoluble white gold is filtered on 0.45 micron paper and vacuum dried at 120C for two hours. The white powder product obtained from the filtration and drying is pure G-ORME. The G-ORME made according to this invention will exhibit the special properties described in the "General Description" of this application, including catalytic activity, special magnetic properties, resistance to sintering at high temperatures, and resistance to aqua regia and cyanide attack.
Sources for pure G-ORME